Need an argumentative essay on Smoking history. Needs to be 15 pages. Please no plagiarism.
Linda is a 32 years old female, who is admitted in emergency after 2 days of urinary problems/infection. She holds a history of 18 years of smoking. She is asked to stop smoking immediately and operation is suggested to be done after a few weeks. Linda is scheduled to undergo a urethral dilation and curettage in addition to Hysteroscopy and laparoscopy.
Smoking history increases the risk factor in the whole process and the number of complications may increase at postoperative stage. “The ratio of smoking addicts is 40-50%, they are moving towards death because they continue smoking” (Nel & Morgan, 1996). In smoker’s body, the demand of oxygen is greater. the carbon monoxide in cigarette binds with the haemoglobin in the blood to form carboxyhemoglobin and it reduces the supply f oxygen to the tissues by 15% or more, which results in a supply demand imbalance (Amoroso 1996).It is assessed that the anaesthesia procedure is effected by the imbalance caused by carboxyhaemoglobin, it occurs right at the time when oxygen demand is higher in anaesthesia.
It is specially considered that the reliability of assessment methods is considered. It is due to the fact that a standard preoperative monitoring method, pulse oximetry, is not capable to identify carboxyhaemoglobin, as it only identifies haemoglobin and oxyhaemoglobin. The other negative point according to Taylor & Goldhill (1992) is, ‘pulse oximeter overestimates the patient’s oxygen saturation, and consequently decreased oxygen saturation is not detected straightaway’.
During preoperative stage, there are chances of going through adverse cardiovascular for Linda. Nel and Morgan (1996 p.309) point out, ‘Smoking is also a major risk factor for arterial thromboembolism and coronary vasospasm by multiple pathways including direct endothelial damage and haematological, metabolic and biochemical disturbance’. .
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